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Full text of "The Fate Of Man In The Modern World"

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Marxist form, Socialism is hostile not merely to
Nationalism, but to the national; it is bound up
•with cosmopolitanism. This is the point on
which the national and the social most often come
to blows. Marx proclaimed the principle that
the labourer has no fatherland : " Workers of
the world unite 1" The classes which are cruelly
exploited and suppressed by their fellow-country-
men cannot feel much national solidarity and
brotherhood with them. For the exploited of
one country, the exploited and oppressed of
another are nearer than the exploiters of their
own. Social- and class-solidarity is contrasted
with that within a nation. Men unite and
separate on a vertical, instead of a horizontal
plane. Marx has been criticized for having
destroyed the reality of fatherland, for the denial
of all patriotic and national feeling. But it would
be more just to say that Marx merely recognized
an existing situation. It was capitalism and its
crying social injustice which destroyed all national
feeling in the working classes. The international-
ism of the -workers is just as comprehensible and
easily explained, just as justified emotionally, as
is their atheism. Patriotism and Nationalism
have been too often used to conceal the interests
of the ruling classes, just as have been religion
and the church. But this does not solve either
problem : that of nationality or that of religion.